Hayward goes on to describe canoe yawls and explains how these were more suitable craft to explore estuaries and to venture out onto the sea. They were slightly larger sailing canoes with a beam of 3ft to 4ft 6in, higher free-board, more ballast and a larger sail area. We do not sail anything like them but perhaps they are the equivalent of a decked canoe with outriggers.
The book "Canoe Handling" by C Bowyer Vaux from 1885 suggests that a well set up sailing canoe with large sail and centreboard will sail at 50 to 60 degrees off the wind when close hauled. They knew little about aerofoil sections for their boards and had their sails cut very flat. Today a well set up sailing canoe with a Bermudan rig and aerofoil section board can sail at 45 degrees to the wind or even better.
Wood Gas Stove (DaveP)
Most people who have ever lived have cooked on wood. About 40% of people alive today still do. Traditionally, travellers in wooded areas have cooked on firewood that they have found near their campsites, but high mountains and the arctic presented a problem. You may remember how, in Lord of the Rings, Boromir, claiming to be an expert in mountain travel, says that each of the party must carry into the mountains, "a faggot as big as he can bear." By mid-Victorian times mountaineers were getting tired of hauling firewood above the tree line and various attempts were made to produce a light camping stove that burned more concentrated fuel. One of the first was called 'The Russian Furnace' which ran on "vapour of spirits of wine".
Towards the end of the 19th century the inventor of the blowlamp developed it into the Primus stove, which was quickly adopted first for polar exploration then for mountaineering. I think I can remember the introduction of Camping Gaz stoves in the late 60s. I find it interesting that these stoves were originally invented to solve a particular problem, that of travelling above the treeline, which is not usually my problem, particularly when canoeing.