of the sea, rises over the worst waves, but the boat's passage at any speed creates forces of suction which defeat this buoyancy, and tend to topple breaking seas inboard. Taking down sails, it would appear, is insufficient as any boat will still have way, so a sea anchor at the bow keeps the hull headed to wind, whilst one from the stern allows the boat to run slowly before seas which would otherwise swamp it.
The Tilikum was a North West Coast Indian dug out canoe, originally constructed from one cedar log. The canoe was about 30 feet long on the waterline, 38 feet LOA, with a beam of about 4.5 feet. Voss strengthened the hull by fitting bent oak frames. A keelson and floor boards were also fitted. The sides of the canoe were built up a further 7 inches; a cabin with only about 3.5 feet headroom was also fitted, for the comfort of the crew. Voss rigged his craft with 3 masts, each about 15 feet high.
The Venturesome Voyages of Captain Voss by John C Voss (with introduction by Weston Martyr); Lauriat, Boston and Hopkinson, London, 1926, xvi, 326pp
The Venturesome Voyages of Captain Voss by John C Voss (with introduction by Richard Hughes) HartDavies, London, 1955, 326pp (Mariners Library No 3)
"Tilikum;" Luxton's Pacific Crossing, being the Journal of Norman Kenny Luxton, Mate of the "Tilikum", May 20, 1901, Victoria, BC, to October 18, 1901, Suva, Fiji; Edited by Eleanor Georgina Luxton with a foreword by George FG Stanley; Gray's Publishing, Sidney BC, 1971, 159pp.