If the centreboard sticks, the sliding seat, the drop-rudder, or the tabernacle will not work, or any other tackle be refractory, lard is the agent to induce facility. If a locker lid or slide is too stiff, a little lard will remedy it; if it does not fit tight enough, but allows rain and sea-water to leak in, lard will stop this. Any line or fair-lead that sticks will allow of easy running if greased with a little lard. Any leather fittings, gear, or camping materials will keep soft, and not get stiff and mouldy, if treated with lard. Lard will stop a small leak whether in the centreboard case, the stuffing-box, or the canoe planking. The uses of lard are indeed too many to enumerate. The canoeist can also use it on his sore and bruised hands, on his sunburnt face, neck and arms; to keep his boots watertight; and lastly, should he catch cold, a little rubbed on his nose, throat or chest may cause relief and ensure a night's repose. Therefore, always have lard aboard.
From: "Canoeing with Sail and Paddle" by J. D. Hayward, Mersey Canoe Club.
Pub: George Bell & Sons, York St., Covent Garden. 1893
We seem to spend most of our time sailing to windward. It's not surprising, we generally sail on long narrow lakes and, whatever the forecast says it is doing, the wind tends to blow along the lake valley. Even the best sailors get to windward much slower than they sail downwind so an average day out consists of setting off from the downwind end of the lake, sailing upwind for a few hours and then a quick run back to the car.
Sailing to windward is difficult but totally absorbing if you do it reasonably well, but not any fun for anybody if you do not. When you are sailing to windward everything that is stuck up in the air and is not a properly set sail is catching the wind and pushing you backwards.
A sail can be in three states. It can be blowing down wind like a flag (feathered or undersheeted), it can be sheeted just right or it can be oversheeted (stalled). When it is undersheeted it is not doing too much harm but it is not doing any good either. When it is just right it is driving the boat as well as possible and when it is oversheeted it is driving the boat somewhat but there is also a lot of drag, which is tending to overturn the boat and/or push it backwards.